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  • Alvarado Area of Wildcat Canyon Park: Improvements - Richmond CA
    The New Deal made major improvements to the former Alvarado Park on the east side of Richmond CA, where Wildcat Creek tumbles out of the East Bay hills. Alvarado Park was transferred by the city of Richmond to the East Bay Regional Park District in 1985 and is now the "Alvarado Area" of Wildcat Canyon Park.     The park is known for its New Deal stonework, done chiefly by Italian immigrant masons, including a massive stone arch bridge across Wildcat Creek, stone light standards along roads and paths, and picnic facilities and stone stoves. The stonework is remarkable enough for the park...
  • Anacostia Park: Improvements - Washington DC
    Anacostia Park is one of Washington DC's two largest parks and recreation areas, along with Rock Creek Park.  It covers over 1200 acres along the Anacostia River from South Capitol Street SE to the Maryland boundary in NE.  The New Deal improved the park in major ways, after the Capital Parks system was put under the control of the National Park Service (NPS) by President Franklin Roosevelt in 1933. New Deal public works agencies developed such key features of the park as Kenilworth Park and Aquatic Gardens, Langston Golf Course and Anacostia Pool (see linked pages). Besides those major elements, improvements included,...
  • Arches National Park - Moab UT
    Arches National Monument was established in 1929 with only 4,500 acres and enlarged dramatically to over 33,000 acres by President Franklin Roosevelt in 1938 (Arches became a National Park in 1971).  Some of the first improvements to the monument were made by workers of the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC).  CCC camp NP-7 was established in nearby Moab UT in April 1940 and lasted until March 1942, one of the last in the country to be closed. CCC 'boys' worked on roads, trails and erosion control, and notably a headquarters building and bridge over the wash that often blocked access to the...
  • Armstrong Redwoods State Natural Reserve: Improvements - Guerneville CA
    The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) did extensive improvements at Armstrong State Park, 1933 to 1941.   Over the years, CCC Companies 594, 1553. 1920, 1988 and 2916 were stationed at Camp Armstrong, SP-39 (originally known as Camp Armstrong Woods, P-804), which was located by the present entrance to the park.  The enrollees built an amphitheater, a community building (including warden's headquarters), picnic areas with stone stoves and tables of redwood, a timber bridge, two miles of road improvements, cleared underbrush, and made general improvements to park grounds and other facilities (Goddard 1976). Many of those features remain.  The amphitheater was under renovation during a...
  • Arroyo Viejo Recreation Center - Oakland CA
    Arroyo Viejo Recreation Center/Park was developed between 1936 and 1939 by the Works Progress Administration (WPA), working with the Oakland Recreation Department.  The WPA funded the project for around $60,000 in 1935 (Chronicle 1935). The 16 acre site on Arroyo Viejo Creek was purchased by the city in pieces, starting in 1935.  The entire purchase cost about $36,000 (Post-Enquirer 1935). The property had belonged to the Japanese Domoto family, who operated a nursery there.  (An interesting sidelight is that Kenji Domoto went on to be a famous landscape architect) The work of creating a new park began with tearing down acres of...
  • Ballinger City Park - Ballinger TX
    The National Youth Administration built park facilities in Ballinger City Park. The marker is installed in a rock wall lining the park road. Park amenities include an old bridge, picnic tables, a low bench, a couple of buildings, and retaining walls.
  • Bear Creek Canyon Scenic Mountain Drive - Morrison CO
    Bear Creek Canyon Scenic Mountain Drive is a 2-mile stretch of Colorado Highway 74 between the towns of Morrison and Idledale, just west of Red Rocks Park and Amphitheatre. The route is noted for its enclosing granite cliffs and diverse vegetation. During the 1930s, the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) raised the bed of the road, which had originally been built by the Denver Motor Club. The project involved the construction of six 20-foot retaining walls along the edge of Bear Creek.
  • Beavers Bend State Park - McCurtain County OK
    Beavers Bend State Park, also known as McCurtain County State Park, in the southeast corner of Oklahoma was dramatically enhanced by Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) efforts. The Newkirk Herald Journal reported in 1936: "In McCurtain County State park, the CCC constructed a park road, four miles of foot trails and ran out park boundary lines. Fire hazards have been lessened by removing tree tops ..." Per OKNewDeal.com: "Much of the charm of Beavers Bend Resort Park lies in the fact that when the park was built in 1937 by the Civilian Conservation Corps, the materials of choice came from the land itself:...
  • Bellevue Hill Park Improvements - Boston MA
    W.P.A. project description: 1938 Massachusetts Metropolitan District Commission annual report: "Blue Hills Division, in Boston; this project provided for extensive beautification work of road construction, sidewalk construction, grading of roadside slopes, drainage, etc. in Stony Brook Reservation, Bellevue Hill Section, ..."
  • Big Basin Redwoods State Park Improvements - Boulder Creek CA
    During the Great Depression of the 1930s, the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) installed a camp at Big Basin, California's first state park (1901), and built a variety of facilities for public recreation.   Big Basin was saved through the efforts of Sempervirens Club (now Fund), as one of the last and largest groves of giant coast redwoods left in the Santa Cruz Mountains. CCC men built the park headquarters (1936), an amphitheater of redwood logs, campgrounds, other park buildings and miles of trails, and probably roads and water lines, as well. For 75 years, those facilities remained virtually unchanged (one footbridge across...
  • Big Oak Flat Road - Yosemite National Park CA
    The present Big Oak Flat Road was constructed by the Bureau of Public Roads (BPR), with Public Works Administration (PWA) funding, between 1935 and 1940.  It is one of  three main roads into Yosemite Valley, along with El Portal road and Wawona road. Big Oak Flat Road is the main entrance road into Yosemite from the north, designated as state highway 120. At Crane Flat, highway 120 follows the Tioga Road toward Tuolumne Meadows and over Tioga Pass.  Big Oak Flat road splits off to head south toward Yosemite Valley.  Highway 120 from Groveland (west of the park) to the park...
  • Blue Hills Reservation - Milton MA
    The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), Civil Works Administration (CWA), and Works Progress Administration (WPA) conducted extensive development work at Massachusetts's Blue Hills Reservation. Massachusetts Metropolitan District Commission annual reports detail the work of the CCC over time. 1933 report: "In the latter part of June a Civilian Conservation Camp was established by the National Park Service for Emergency Conservation Work for State Parks in the Blue Hills Reservation near Randolph Avenue. The camp was in charge of U. S. Army Officers. The enlisted men in the camp varied from 212 to 145. The work of the men in the reservation has been handled by a...
  • Breakheart Reservation - Saugus MA
    The Civilian Coservation Corps (C.C.C.) was active at the Breakheart Reservation in Saugus, Mass. 1934 Metropolitan District Commission annual report: "Under Chapter 338, Acts of 1934, the Commission were authorized to purchase about 650 acres of land in Saugus and Wakefield, adjacent to the Lynn Fells Parkway, near the junction of the Newburyport Turnpike. This area, which has been named Breakheart Reservation, will be developed into one of the most attractive recreation parks in the Metropolitan District. Application has been made for establishing a Civilian Conservation Camp by the National Park Service of the United States Department of the Interior." 1936 report: "About 3,000 man hours...
  • Brookdale Park Improvements - Montclair NJ
    The Works Progress Administration (WPA) completed improvements in Brookdale Park NJ (Essex County) in 1937. Initial construction of the park began in 1928 following an Olmstead Brothers’ design. “The basic work was in place by 1930,” suggests the Essex County Parks Department. But hen the Depression hit, the work that was originally estimated to take only a few years was extended to many years. Construction became dependent upon labor available from the WPA and ERA agencies, who completed the major work by 1937. The result is one of the County's most beautiful parks.” The WPA provided most of the funds and labor...
  • Bryce Canyon National Park Improvements - Bryce Canyon UT
    Bryce Canyon was originally designated as a national monument by President Warren G. Harding in 1923 and became a national park through an act of Congress in 1928. The park covers 35,835 acres in south-central Utah. The New Deal greatly improved Bryce Canyon National Park.  Along with the National Park Service, the Public Works Administration (PWA) provided special funds, the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) worked continuously in the park, and the Works Progress Administration (WPA) was also active. The National Park Service recognizes the CCC's contribution on its website for Bryce Canyon NP, but not that of the PWA or WPA:  “During the 1930s...
  • Burke Mountain Roads - Darling State Forest VT
    The Civilian Conservation Corps built roads, hiking and ski trails, and recreation facilities on Burke Mountain VT.
  • Canyon de Chelly National Monument - Chinle AZ
    Canyon de Chelly is "one of a few National Park Service units that lie wholly within Navajo lands." It is jointly managed by the NPS and the Navajo Nation. "The National Park Service was eager to maintain Canyon de Chelly in unaltered condition while also providing safe and attractive accommodations for the visiting public. With $6000 from an erosion control project, Indian CCC laborers began work on the 4,085-foot-long White House Trail, supervised by a park service engineer. Each year Indian CCC enrollees did further work on roads leading to Canyon de Chelly as well as roads and trails within...
  • Cape Arago State Park - Coos Bay OR
    Land for Cape Arago State Park was donated to Oregon State Parks in 1932 but lay undeveloped until Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) enrollees began improvements in 1934. Over a two-year period, they completed a considerable amount of work.  As noted in a 1965 history of the Oregon State Parks, their tasks included: constructing roads, trails, fire breaks and fire hazard reduction, clearing a picnic area, setting up tables and stoves, constructing a water system and erecting a park foreman's cottage. A CCC camp operated at Cape Arago for the period of time required to provide basic amenities for day use at...
  • Cape Lookout State Park - Tillamook OR
    Acquired for state park use in 1935, the State Park plans for this beautiful stretch of coastline in Tillamook County initially focused on its use as an undeveloped, natural preserve. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) enrollees built the first major improvement, a 5.2-mile trail to the end of the cape in 1939-1940. They also created a minimal picnic area at Jackson Creek. To provide road access to the park, Works Progress Administration (WPA) workers were employed in the early 1940s. Progress on improvement of the primitive road was halted by lack of funds. Work on road access resumed in the early 1950s.
  • Cape Sebastian State Scenic Corridor (Cape Sebastian State Park) - Gold Beach OR
    Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) enrollees began development of the 537-acre Cape Sebastian State Park as early as October 1934. The promontory, covered by spruce forest, offers striking views of the Pacific below. CCC workers developed the roads and trails necessary for the public's access to those views. Parking areas, defined by low rock walls, in the northern and southern parts of the park complete access to the cape's perspective. As summarized by Portland's newspaper, the Oregonian, in 1940: "A lofty promontory, which juts out into the Pacific Ocean; one of the most striking coastal features along the Coast Highway. Good roads here, trails...
  • Castle Crags State Park Development - Castella CA
    From 1933 to 1937, Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) workers developed Castle Crags State Park for public use.  CCC enrollees from a camp at Castella built "the park’s roads, trails, infrastructure and buildings in the 'park rustic' style of native wood and stone." (State Parks brochure).  Evidently, some of the CCC workers at Castle Crags were African American (see photo below). The state purchased the land in 1933 from a bankrupt private resort with a mineral springs, "Castle Rock Spring", which had fallen into disrepair.  The CCC workers built a trail down to the river, a new suspension bridge to replace an old, unsafe bridge for...
  • CCC Camp - Valentine NE
    The Omaha World-Herald announced in the June 13, 1933 edition that Nebraska’s sixth Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Camp was approved in Washington D.C. and that it would be located near Valentine. Officials arrived in September to make arrangements for the establishment of the camp at the Federal Game Preserve, three miles east of town (the present Fort Niobrara National Wildlife Refuge). The camp, as planned in 1933, would consist of seven buildings to provide comfortable quarters for the 200 men and camp officers who would reside there. The camp, designated for soil erosion projects, would house young men in barracks measuring...
  • CCC Camp (former) - Lassen National Park CA
    Lassen National Volcanic Park was created in 1916. In the 1930s, the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) worked in the park on buildings, trails, roads and more. Most of this work was done out of three CCC camps at Mineral, the site of Lassen Park headquarters (which lies outside the main park borders).  The CCC was active in the park from 1933 on. Park staff pointed out the site of the CCC camp below the headquarters area, on the south side of state highway 36.  Nothing remains of the camp except a large clearing in the forest and the traces of a...
  • CCC Camp Britton - Windsor CT
    The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)'s Company #1193, Camp Britton, was based at the Agricultural Experiment Station in Windsor, Connecticut. It operated from Sept. 12, 1935 to May 26, 1937. Work included planting trees, insect eradication, forest improvements, road building, and clean-up work after the flood of 1936.
  • CCC Camp NA-1 (National Arboretum) - Washington DC
    Camp NA-1 was located in the National Arboretum, Washington, DC, and was home to Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Company 1360, an all African-American unit. Many of the enrollees in Company 1360 were young men from the city itself. Company 1360 formed on June 7, 1933 at Fort George Meade, Maryland and, after initial work assignments in Chester, Virginia (Camp P-61) and Williamsburg, Virginia (Camp SP-9), the men settled into Camp NA-1 in November 1934. From then until 1941 these young African American men made the earliest significant developments to the National Arboretum – a project of the Bureau of Plant Industry...
  • CCC Camp NHP-2 (former) - Yorktown VA
    Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Camp NHP-2 was created at Yorktown VA for the purpose of developing the Colonial National Historical Park (Jamestown Settlement, Yorktown Battlefield, Colonial Parkway). Camp NHP-2 housed CCC Company 323, which had been formed in Fort Washington, Maryland, in Spring 1933, before moving to Virginia. Company 323, along with four other African American CCC companies, developed Colonial National Historical Park. This work would continue until at least the end of 1941 – essentially, the entire life of the CCC program. The CCC enrollees worked under the direction of the National Park Service (NPS), which had just taken over the job of...
  • CCC Camp Saddle Mountain (former) - Seaside OR
    Members of Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) #1258 arrived at CCC Camp Saddle Mountain near Seaside and Cannon Beach OR in the summer of 1935. The majority of the Company's enrollees were from New York. Although the CCC workers occupied tents upon their arrival, they began construction of bunkhouses, recreational halls, officers' quarters and other camp buildings. With the camp's completion, the encampment grew to its full strength of 200 men. Located near what was then the Nehalem Highway (now US Hwy 26), the camp's site was rented by the state to the federal government. Improvement of that land for Oregon State Park...
  • CCC Camp SP3 - Fairburn SD
    The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) maintained a camp on French Creek east of Custer State Park in South Dakota from 1934 to 1941.  It was officially camp SP-3 (meaning State Park #3).  The recruits worked on projects in region under the supervision of Custer State Park rangers and the National Park Service (NPS). The CCC enrollees built many miles of road, telephone lines and boundary fences. To this they added 20 bridges.  They constructed a fire lookout on Mt. Coolidge, along with a ranger's residence there, and fought fires and bark beetle infestations. They developed the Blue Bell Lodge and cabins...
  • CCC Camp Trask (former) - Tillamook OR
    From 1935 through May 1941, the area now occupied by the Trask River County Campground served as the site of Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Camp Trask. The enrollees stationed at the camp worked primarily on truck trail construction and other activities related to "fire hazard reduction" on private forest land. As described in the Vancouver Barracks report (1937): "Camp Trask is built in a grove of fir and spruce trees on the bank of the river and affords a very attractive site. The buildings are arranged into a square, with parade grounds and flagpole in the center. Electric lights are provided...
  • CCC Camp Wolcott - Torrington CT
    The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)'s Company #176, Camp Wolcott, was based at Paugnut State Forest in Torrington, Connecticut. It operated from 1933 to 1937. Work accomplished included construction of 8 miles of truck trails and many miles of cross-country ski trails.
  • CCC Camp: Blue Hills Reservation - Milton MA
    From 1933-1937 a Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) camp operated within the Blue Hills Reservation, south of Boston. Over that time the CCC made numerous improvements to the Reservation, including two lookout towers, ski trails, a toboggan run, and any number of road and trail enhancements. Bare remnants of the CCC camp remain today, but are noted with historical markers. Description of C.C.C. activities in the Blue Hills Reservation, per the Metropolitan District Commission 1938 annual report: "The camp work crews assigned to the creosoting of gypsy moth egg clusters continued the work started in the fall of 1936 until the spring hatching...
  • CCC Camps - Grand Canyon National Park AZ
    The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was extremely active in Grand Canyon National Park from 1933 to 1942.  There were six CCC camps on the North Rim, South Rim and in the canyon itself and seven companies active over the decade: #818, 819, 847, 2543, 2833, 3318 and 4814.   Grand Canyon National Park received more development funds and labor from the Civilian Conservation Corps than any other location in Arizona. CCC enrollees built many of the recreation facilities still in use today, such as paths, trails, roads, shelters, and campgrounds, along with basic infrastructure, such as telephone lines, electric lines, water pipes and sewer...
  • CCC Side Camp - Denali National Park AK
    The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) did extensive work at Denali National Park for two summers in 1938 and 1939.   At that time, the park was smaller and called Mount McKinley National Park. As at other national parks, the Civilian Conservation Corps had an important role in the development of park infrastructure, administrative and recreation facilities. The main CCC camp was near the site of the present main visitors center at the east entrance to the park. A side camp was also set up on the Teklanika river near mile 28 on the Denali Park Road in 1939. It is likely that...
  • Civic League Park - San Angelo TX
    Civic League Park sits on land donated by Uriah Gilliam Taylor to the San Angelo Civic League in 1904. The San Angelo City Council accepted the property as a park in 1907, and Taylor signed the deed over to the city in 1911. During the Depression, Works Progress Administration laborers improved the park based on the designs of Albert Nealy Carlin, the city’s first superintendent of parks. These improvements include a bridge and the rock work around the park. Civic League Park is still in use and is the site of one of the world's foremost waterlily collections.
  • Colonial Parkway - Yorktown VA
    Colonial Parkway is part of the National Park Service's Colonial National Historical Park. It is a scenic 23-mile parkway that links together Virginia's Historic Triangle of colonial-era communities: Jamestown, Williamsburg, and Yorktown. Different portions of the parkway were built between 1930 and 1957. In the 1930s, the US Forest Service and the National Park Service used Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) workers to built the parkway.
  • Colorado National Monument: Rim Rock Drive - Grand Junction CO
    The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) constructed the 23-mile Rim Rock Drive from one end of the Colorado National Monument to the other.  It is a remarkable road that winds along the top of the cliffs, with spectacular views of the Colorado Plateau countryside below. Construction of the road was a risky undertaking, with three tunnels through the cliffs, the longest of which is 530 feet.  Apparently, the Works Progress Administration (WPA) also participated in the construction of the road and the Public Works Administration (PWA) provided funding to the National Park Service for the road, but that needs further confirmation. Rim Rock road...
  • Colossal Cave Mountain Park: Cave Access - Vail AZ
    The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) carried out major work at Colossal Cave and the surrounding park north of Vail AZ (now a suburb of Tucson, but far to the east in the 1930s). They improved access for visitors to the cave itself, built a large visitors'/administration center, laid out a campground and picnic area, opened roads and trails and built a water supply system.  The Arizona State Park Service oversaw the work. Work inside Colossal Cave included widening the entrance and passageways, installing rock walkways and handrails, and added lighting and a water pipeline. This work was done in 1934-37 by...
  • Colossal Cave Mountain Park: Roads and Trails - Vail AZ
    The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) carried out major work at Colossal Cave and the surrounding park north of Vail AZ (now a suburb of Tucson, but far to the east in the 1930s). They improved access for visitors to the cave itself, built a large visitors'/administration center, laid out a campground and picnic area, opened roads and trails and built a water supply system.  The Arizona State Park Service oversaw the work. We know that CCC workers built roads and trails in the park.  They almost certainly built the main road up to the visitors' center, plus the parking lot and...
  • Cove Lake State Park - Caryville TN
    Cove Lake State Park, originally planned as Fort Mountain Park, was the third joint effort of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), and the National Parks Service (NPS). The initial 668-acre park was built along the banks of the lake created by the Caryville Dam (1936). The dam was built to minimize the flooding to Caryville from the Norris Dam (1933-1936) project down stream. Even with the Caryville Dam, some 70 structures including the First Baptist Church and a high school were demolished. In addition, Tennessee Highway 63 and US Highway 25 (Dixie Highway) required relocation....
  • Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge - Ellsworth NE
    Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge was created in 1931 under the Hoover Administration, but was not improved until President Franklin Roosevelt came into office in 1933. The refuge lies on the southwestern edge of the Sand Hills of Nebraska and it 45,000+ acres include one of the great wilderness areas of the NWR system. According to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, “The earliest government actions on the Refuge were tree planting and small construction projects by the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) and the Works Projects Administration (WPA). The CCC built several buildings still in use today at the Refuge headquarters....
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