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  • Colonial National Historical Park: Fortifications - Yorktown VA
    Colonial National Historical Park (CNHP) was created by Congress and President Herbert Hoover in 1930 and consists primarily of the Yorktown Battlefield, the historic Jamestown Settlement, and Colonial Parkway. Several federal agencies participated in its development. The National Park Service (NPS) provided general supervision of the entire historic site project after it was given responsibility for all historic battlefields by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The Public Works Administration (PWA) contributed at least $600,000 (and probably much more) in funding. Relief agencies provided labor power: the Civil Works Administration (CWA) worked over the winter of 1933-1934 (probably for mosquito control and general...
  • Colonial National Historical Park: Landscaping - Yorktown VA
    Colonial National Historical Park (CNHP) was created by Congress and President Herbert Hoover in 1930 and consists primarily of the Yorktown Battlefield, the historic Jamestown Settlement, and Colonial Parkway. Several federal agencies participated in its development. The National Park Service (NPS) provided general supervision of the entire historic site project after it was given responsibility for all historic battlefields by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The Public Works Administration (PWA) contributed at least $600,000 (and probably much more) in funding. Relief agencies provided labor power: the Civil Works Administration (CWA) worked over the winter of 1933-1934 (probably for mosquito control and general clean-up)...
  • Colonial Parkway - Yorktown VA
    Colonial Parkway is part of the National Park Service's Colonial National Historical Park. It is a scenic 23-mile parkway that links together Virginia's Historic Triangle of colonial-era communities: Jamestown, Williamsburg, and Yorktown. Different portions of the parkway were built between 1930 and 1957. In the 1930s, the US Forest Service and the National Park Service used Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) workers to built the parkway.
  • Colorado-Big Thompson Water Project - Grand Lake CO
    The Colorado-Big Thompson Project (C-BTP) is a massive water storage and transfer project for agriculture, cities and power generation. It involves dams and reservoirs on the west side of the Rocky Mountains' Front Range to collect water from the upper Colorado River system; a tunnel through the mountains under Rocky Mountain National Park; and a series of storage reservoirs, power plants and distribution aqueducts on the eastern side of the Rockies. The project extends over a large area of Grand, Larimer, and Weld counties, and portions of four others.  The C-BTP was built and is still managed by the US Bureau of...
  • Cooper Spur Trail Shelter - Mt. Hood National Forest OR
    As recorded in a discussion of the Mount Hood National Forest in the US Forest Service publication  The Forest Service and the Civilian Conservation Corps: 1933-1942: "The Cooper Spur Trail Shelter was one of several shelters built by the CCC along the Timberline Trail. It was probably built by the Cooper Spur Camp, a side camp of Camp Wyeth at Cascade Locks. The native stone shclter is located on the Hood River Ranger District, about 1 mile south of theCloud Cap Inn and 50 yards from the intersection of the Timberline Trail and Trail 600-A. The 12 x 12-foot shelter was built...
  • Cove Lake State Park - Caryville TN
    Cove Lake State Park, originally planned as Fort Mountain Park, was the third joint effort of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), and the National Parks Service (NPS). The initial 668-acre park was built along the banks of the lake created by the Caryville Dam (1936). The dam was built to minimize the flooding to Caryville from the Norris Dam (1933-1936) project down stream. Even with the Caryville Dam, some 70 structures including the First Baptist Church and a high school were demolished. In addition, Tennessee Highway 63 and US Highway 25 (Dixie Highway) required relocation....
  • Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge - Ellsworth NE
    Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge was created in 1931 under the Hoover Administration, but was not improved until President Franklin Roosevelt came into office in 1933. The refuge lies on the southwestern edge of the Sand Hills of Nebraska and it 45,000+ acres include one of the great wilderness areas of the NWR system. According to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, “The earliest government actions on the Refuge were tree planting and small construction projects by the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) and the Works Projects Administration (WPA). The CCC built several buildings still in use today at the Refuge headquarters....
  • Cumberland Falls State Resort Park: Pinnacle Knob Fire Tower - Corbin KY
    The CCC-built Pinnacle Knob Fire Tower was originally a lookout tower for forest fires. Decommissioned in 1976, the tower was restored in 2008 and listed on the National Historic Lookout Register.
  • DAR Memorial Ponderosa Pine Grove - Ashland OR
    In the spring of 1940, Civilian Conservation Corps enrollees from CCC Camp Applegate planted 1200 ponderosa pines in an acre of land south of Ashland's Lithia Park on behalf of a local chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR). The DAR's leadership chose participation in the "Penny Pine" program as one of the organization's Golden Jubilee National Projects and encouraged such groves across the country. With the help of the CCC, the National Forest Service had started growing pines in nurseries for replanting as a means of revitalizing the nation's forests. Selling them to organizations for a penny a...
  • Deerfield Dam - Hill City SD
    Several New Deal agencies contributed to the construction of the Deerfield Dam in the vicinity of Hill City and the Black Hills National Forest, SD. Construction began before the Roosevelt Administration, continued during the New Deal, and finished after World War II. According to the Bureau of Reclamation, "Construction was started on July 7, 1942, by the Farm Security Administration and was later continued by the Civilian Conservation Corps and the Civilian Public Service Camp under the Works Projects Administration during World War II. The facilities were completed by the Bureau of Reclamation in 1947."
  • Dennis L. Edwards Tunnel (former Sunset Tunnel; Wolf Creek Tunnel) - Timber OR
    Originally named the Wolf Creek Tunnel, construction on this 800-foot long tunnel began in 1940 as one of the final steps in completion of the Wolf Creek Highway's path through the Coast Range linking the Portland area with northern Oregon coastal communities. Kibbe and Kearn, a Portland firm, cut the tunnel's bore. Works Progress Administration (WPA) workers completed the stone masonry veneer on the tunnel's east and west portals. The project was completed in 1941. Oregon State Highway engineers designed the rustic-style tunnel portals. The plans were reviewed by National Park Service landscape architects and carried out by WPA masons under...
  • Desert Experimental Range Station Improvements - Pine Valley UT
    In 1935, the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) constructed living quarters, roads, fences and a well at the Desert Experimental Range Station in Pine Valley UT. The station was established in 1933 by President Herbert Hoover, who set aside an 87-square-mile area of high desert in the Great Basin.  The CCC improvements made the range station functional. The Desert Experimental Range focuses on cold desert rangeland research. In 1976, it was designated a world biosphere reserve by UNESCO, the only cold desert reserve in the Western Hemisphere.  It is administered by the US Forest Service. 
  • Dinosaur National Monument Expansion - Dinosaur CO
    In 1909, an abundance of dinosaur fossils were discovered  by a team of paleontologists collecting for the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, near Jensen, Utah. It was one of the most important dinosaur excavation sites in the United States at the time. In 1915, President Woodrow Wilson set aside 80 acres around the fossil discovery site as a National Monument. President Franklin Roosevelt expanded the monument to its present size of nearly 200,000 acres in 1938. About 3/4th of the enlarged monument lies in Colorado, making this one of the few bi-state national parks or monuments.  It is administered by the...
  • Douglas Dam - Sevierville TN
    "Douglas Dam is a hydroelectric dam on the French Broad River in Sevier County, Tennessee, in the southeastern United States. The dam is operated by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), which built the dam in record time in the early 1940s to meet emergency energy demands at the height of World War II. Douglas Dam is a straight reinforced concrete gravity-type dam 1705 feet long and 202 feet high, impounding the 28,420-acre Douglas Lake. The dam was named for Douglas Bluff, a cliff overlooking the dam site prior to construction." (Wikipedia)
  • Eagle Creek Campground and Picnic Area - Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area OR
    Although the Eagle Creek Campground opened as the first "auto camp" in the northwest region in 1915, Civilian Conservation Corp (CCC) workers made significant improvements to the campground from 1934 to 1937. As early as August 1934, the Oregonian reported that "Eagle Creek Campground is being improved so it will accommodate more picnic parties, through labors of boys from the Benson CCC camp . . . ". Their work included clearing additional campground space, building fireplaces and cutting up fallen snags to create wood for campfires. Headlines from the same Portland newspaper announced later in the fall that a record number of visitors...
  • Eagle Creek Overlook Group Site - Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area OR
    In 1937, CCC workers from Camp Cascade Locks began improvements on recently acquired park land to extend the Eagle Creek campground and picnic area to the shores of the Columbia. These twenty-one acres were acquired to provide access to land overlooking Bonneville Dam. This new campground and picnic area is referred to as the Eagle Creek Overlook Group Site. In addition to landscaped trails and new picnic facilities and campsites, the CCC workers built the Eagle Creek Overlook Shelter to serve as a community kitchen, picnic shelter and restroom facility. As a 1984 US Forest Service report states: "The overlook building...
  • Eagle Rock Campground - Umpqua National Forest OR
    The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) had a camp at Steamboat Creek from 1933 to 1941. It was a US Forest Service camp serving Umpqua National Forest.  The enrollees made many improvements along the North Umpqua River, including campgrounds, trails and bridges. One of the campgrounds developed by the CCC was at Eagle Rock along Highway 138.
  • Ecola State Park - Cannon Beach OR
    Ecola State Park offers one of the most widely recognized views of the Pacific on the Oregon Coast. Development of the four miles of coastline for park began in 1934 with the work of CCC enrollees from CCC Camp Saddle Mountain (#1258). A number of CCC workers from Company #1258 were located in the 450-acre park from fall 1934 through the spring of 1936. During that time, under the direction of the National Park Service, they completed improvements including an access road, a water system, and a picnic area. They also constructed new trails through rugged terrain and engaged in forest...
  • Erosion Control and Drainage (Camp Bowie) - Brownwood TX
    Until World War II, the site of present-day Camp Bowie was privately owned agricultural land. It is presently the site of Camp Bowie, a military installation owned by the Texas Military Department. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Camp 3818(V), active in Brown County from 1935 to 1936, was composed of 250 local veterans (hence the “V”) and was tasked with erosion control and drainage projects on privately owned land around Brown County. A few structures (now in ruins) likely built by CCC Camp 3818(V) remain on what became part of Camp Bowie, a military installation, at the start of World War...
  • Fall River Entrance Ranger Station - Rocky Mountain National Park CO
    In 1936, the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) constructed three buildings for what was then called the Bighorn Ranger Station at the east entrance to Rocky Mountain National Park – which was the original entrance on this side of the park. The group included a ranger office with garage, a ranger residence and secondary residence/utility building. The three structures were designed by Edward Nickel of the park service in the classic National Park rustic style popular in the first half of the 20th century. "The residence building particularly reflects the design characteristics of the style with its uncoursed native stone foundation, log...
  • Farmington Bay Wildlife Management Area - Farmington UT
    Farmington Bay Wildlife Management Area is an 18,000 acre migratory bird refuge on the shore of the Great Salt Lake.  It began life as Farmington Bay State Park in the 1930s, when the Utah State Department of Fish and Game (now the State Division of Wildlife Resources) sought to transform the delta of the Jordan River into a wildlife refuge. The National Park Service (NPS) was brought in to assist the state in developing the area and, in turn, called on the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) to do the labor. The CCC set up Camp SP-2 on the shore of Farmington Bay...
  • Fern Spring - Yosemite National Park CA
    The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) landscaped Fern Spring, creating an attractive, naturalistic rock garden and planting a variety of ferns, wildflowers, and ground covers. A log guardrail was installed to define the parking area and log seats were placed in the woods around the spring to improve the popular spot. The original wooden structures have been replaced or disappeared over time. Fern Spring had been a sacred site for the native people of Yosemite Valley, long before the park was created in 1863. To this day, Fern Spring is a favorite stopping point for Yosemite visitors. It is located just beyond the Pohono Bridge on...
  • Fire Lookout Tower - Briar MO
    This fire lookout tower outside Briar was a New Deal project completed in 1936. It was almost surely built by the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) under the direction of the US Forest Service, but that needs to be confirmed. The tower design is typical of the era. The Briar Lookout is intact, including a stairway extending to the ground. Access is restricted by a surrounding high chain link fence topped with barbed wire for safety reasons. It is one of the southernmost lookout towers in Missouri.  
  • Fish Lake CCC Side Camp (former) - Willamette National Forest OR
    A Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) side camp, also known as spike camp, operated at Fish Lake in the Willamette National Forest during the from 1934 to 1939. Side or spike camps allowed the CCC to locate its workers closer to their job sites on special projects and forest fighting. In the case of the Fish Lake CCC camp, workers from CCC Camp Mary Creek (Company 2907) and CCC Camp Belknap (Company 927) were moved to the area during the construction season to improve the operation of the Fish Lake Guard Station for its packing operation. This involved building additional corral space...
  • Fish Lake Remount Depot/Fish Lake Guard Station Historic District - Willamette National Forest OR
    By constructing several buildings and the necessary facilities for management of mules and horses, Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) workers played an integral role in  transforming the Fish Lake Guard Station into the Fish Lake Remount Depot. To operate in the rough terrain of the surrounding national forest and nearby wilderness areas, the Forest Service depended on pack animals. The CCC located a side camp at Fish Lake from 1934 - 1939 to improve the Depot for this purpose while assisting in fire fighting and development of recreation opportunities in the Willamette National Forest as well. In 2016, the Fish Lake Remount...
  • Fish Ponds - Rocky Mountain National Park CO
    The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was active in Rocky Mountain National Park during the whole of the program's lifetime, 1933 to 1942.  There were four main camps in the park. The CCC participated in a fish-restocking program, which the National Park Service had initiated in 1931 to deal with depleted lakes and streams due to years of unregulated fishing.  The main contribution of the CCC was to build four fish-rearing ponds, at Horseshoe Park, near Endovalley campground, at Hollowell Park, and near Grand Lake. The ponds were roughly 200 x 100 feet and 10 feet deep. (Brock, p 42). Fry from the Estes...
  • Fontana Dam - Fontana Dam NC
    "Fontana Dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Little Tennessee River in Swain and Graham counties, North Carolina, United States. The dam is operated by the Tennessee Valley Authority, which built the dam in the early 1940s to accommodate the skyrocketing electricity demands in the Tennessee Valley at the height of World War II. At 480 feet high, Fontana is the tallest dam in the Eastern United States, and at the time of its construction, it was the fourth tallest dam in the world." (Wikipedia)
  • Fort Loudon Dam - Lenoir City TN
    Fort Loudon Dam is one of many New Deal dams built by the Tennessee Valley Authority: "In the mid-1930s, TVA drafted its "unified plan," a series of long-term goals that called for the construction of a series of dams along the Tennessee River to provide a minimum 9-foot (2.7 m) navigation channel along the entire length of the river, control flooding in the Tennessee Valley, and bring electricity to the area. The Fort Loudoun project was initially known as a the Coulter Shoals project, named for a site identified by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 6 miles (9.7 km) upstream from the...
  • Fort Niobrara National Wildlife Refuge - Valentine NE
    Fort Niobrara NWR - Valentine NE Fort Niobrara Wildlife Refuge was established by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1912 by Executive Order.  The principal aim was to protect bison and elk herds which had dwindled almost to extinction under the pressure of market hunting in the 19th century.  It was created out of the old frontier Fort Niobrara and today covers almost 20,000 acres of grasslands and riparian forest in Nebraska. In October 1933, the CCC began work in the refuge. A number of projects were identified, including a big game fence measuring twenty-one miles, a seven mile four-wire stock fence, fire prevention...
  • Foss Road (Nehalem River Truck Trail) - Wheeler OR
    Development of a "truck trail," as fire roads were called, was the first priority of the members of #2908 at Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Camp Nehalem when the camp opened in 1935. The camp was located on the edge of the Tillamook Burn. The Tillamook Burn of 1933 was the first of four successive, large forest fires in the northern Oregon Coast Range (1933; 1939; 1945; 1951) that destroyed thousands of acres of what was then private forest land. The 1933 fire burned through 240,000 acres, creating conditions that fueled future fires. At the time of the first fire, vehicle access...
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt Memorial - Washington DC
    The Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) Memorial in Washington DC was completed in 1997 at cost of $48 million dollars, funded largely by the federal government. It is located in West Potomac Park, along the tidal basin between the Lincoln and Thomas Jefferson memorials.  The memorial is managed by the National Park Service. The FDR Memorial is divided into four sections, with each section representing one of FDR’s four terms in the White House. The Cultural Landscape Foundation describes it: “The memorial’s rooms and water features, built primarily of red South Dakota granite, use stone to express the fracture and upheaval of the...
  • Fresno Dam - Havre MT
    "Chain Lakes Project - Montana - Contract for the construction of Fresno Dam across the Milk River has been awarded but no work will be done until the spring of 1937. The dam, for storage and flood control purposes, is of the earth and rock fill type. It will be about 80 feet high and 2,000 feet long, and will contain 1,870,000 cubic yards of material. The storage capacity will be 126,000 acre feet."
  • Friant Dam - Friant CA
    The Friant Dam is one of three major dams in the giant Central Valley Project in Northern California, along with Shasta and Folsom, built by the federal Bureau of Reclamation. Initial funding for the CVP came through the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1935. Friant was aided by funds from the Public Works Administratin (PWA).  The concrete dam, which impounds the San Joaquin River, is 320 feet high and 3,500 feet long at the crest.  The reservoir, Millerton Lake, holds about one-half million acre-feet of water at capacity. The chief purpose of the dam is irrigation water supply.  Water from Millerton Reservoir is shipped...
  • General Improvements - Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Parks CA
    Sequoia National Park and Kings Canyon National Parks were created separately, but because they are contiguous they are administered today by the National Park Service (NPS) as a single unit. Sequoia was the third national park, created in 1893, while Kings Canyon became a national park in 1941, under the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt.   During the New Deal of the 1930s, the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) did extensive work in both national parks, building campgrounds, trails, roads, ranger stations and other facilities.  More specific information is needed on these projects.  
  • General Improvements - Yosemite National Park CA
    The New Deal vastly improved Yosemite National Park in California, which has long been the showpiece of the national park system.  Several federal agencies operated in the park from 1933 to 1942, under the general supervision of the National Park Service: the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), Public Works Administration (PWA), and Bureau of Public Roads (BPR), plus the short-lived Civil Works Administration (CWA)  (December 1933 to April 1934). Major works around Yosemite are detailed in the various site pages listed on the right. Nevertheless, some of the immense amount of work done during the New Deal cannot be pinpointed, so we...
  • Gettysburg National Military Park Improvements - Gettysburg PA
    Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) companies 385 and 1355—both African American units—restored, improved, and maintained Gettysburg National Military Park between 1933 and 1942. CCC projects in and around the battlefield included: road, trail, and fence construction; tree planting and maintenance; tree and stump removal; firefighting; snow shoveling; and utility pipe installation (presumably for water, sewage, or drainage). “The CCC also reconstructed the XII Corps earthworks on Culp’s Hill and provided manpower for the 75th anniversary commemoration of the battle in 1938” (James J. Campi, Jr., Hallowed Ground, 2013).   The CCC worked with the National Park Service (NPS) to plan projects with...
  • Glacier Point Road - Yosemite National Park CA
    The federal Bureau of Public Roads (BPR), funded by the Public Works Administration (PWA), built the 15.7 mile Glacier Point Road from Chinquapin Flat on the Wawona Road to Glacier Point, 1933-35. This project was part of a complete overhaul of Yosemite National Park roads carried out under the New Deal in the 1930s. The Glacier Point Road replaced a primitive saddle road built in the 1870s. Surveys for the route were done in 1930-31 and grading began in 1932. Then, funding for the project became available through the National Industrial Recovery Act, which created the PWA.    "The new road was to...
  • Glide Ranger Station - Glide OR
    The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) built the ranger station in Glide OR at the confluence of the North Umpqua River and Little River, in 1938. The building style is wood and stone, with plank siding, a typical Forest Service rustic look. The little trees cut in the shutters are charming, and they seem to be a common feature around the National Forests and parks of the northwest. The building was refurbished and reopened as an information station in 1992. The modern North Umpqua National Forest ranger station lies just behind the CCC building.    
  • Goosewing Guard Station – Bridger-Teton National Forest WY
    In 1934-35, Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) workers stationed in the Bridger-Teton National Forest constructed five new buildings to create the Goosewing Guard Station, including a central dwelling, two gashouses, a barn and a garage. Originally built as a winter shelter for rangers monitoring elk grazing conditions, the U.S. Forest Service utilized Goosewing Guard Station until it fell into disrepair in the early 2000s. All five buildings were built following standard architectural plans created by U.S. Forest Service regional architect George L. Nichols. Because of Nichols’ contributions to the region in the 1930s (made possible through New Deal funding and labor), the majority...
  • Grand Canyon Village Improvements - Grand Canyon Village AZ
    The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was extremely active in Grand Canyon National Park throughout the New Deal. The CCC enrollees worked under the direction of the National Park Service (NPS) and some of the projects were funded by the Public Works Administration (PWA).  The first CCC camp was established on the South Rim, where Company 819 started working on improvements to the facilities around Grand Canyon Village, the main visitor center for the park, c. 1933-1937. The CCC enrollees built a stone wall along the Rim Trail, the Kolb Studio stairs, the Community Building, rock pillars on Navajo Street, and various paths, culverts,...
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