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  • South Fork Ranger Station (former) - Mount Timpanogos UT
    The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) built the South Fork Ranger Station on the Alpine Loop Road (Highway 92), near the intersection of Highway 144, in 1933-34. The CCC enrollees who did the work were from Company 940 stationed in Camp F-5 at Granite Flat. The work was begun in the Summer of 1933 and a small CCC crew remained through the winter to finish work on the ranger station and the Timpanogos Cave trail and tunnel (Baldridge, p. 164). This is one of around three dozen ranger stations built by the CCC across Utah in the 1930s (Roper 2021).  South Fork Ranger...
  • South Gate Entrance Station - Yosemite National Park CA
    In 1934, the Public Works Administration (PWA) funded the creation of the South Gate Entrance Station to Yosemite National Park.  This followed enlargement of the park by the addition of the area from Wawona south and was done as part of the Wawona Road reconstruction.  The new entrance station included a parking area, entrance station, comfort station (restroom), residences for park rangers and a garage. Of this work, the restroom and ranger residence are original New Deal structures.   The Historic American Engineer Record (HAER) report on the Wawona Road provides these details:  "In 1934, roads around the South Entrance station were...
  • St. Marks Wildlife Refuge Improvements - St. Marks FL
    What is today the St. Marks Wildlife Refuge was originally established in 1931 as the St. Marks Migratory Waterfowl Refuge, a key link in protecting the Atlantic flyway. It cover over 70,000 acres spread out between Wakulla, Jefferson, and Taylor counties in Florida and includes about 43 miles of the Gulf Coast. In the summer of 1933, Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Camp BF-1 was established near Newport to begin work on various improvements to the refuge under the auspices of the Bureau of Biological Survey (from 1940 the Fish & Wildlife Service). It was one of the few all African American camps...
  • Staff Residential Area - Rocky Mountain National Park CO
    The New Deal contributed many residential buildings for park staff at Rocky Mountain National Park, particularly in the large cluster of housing next to the utility area – the main maintenance station for the park which is near the Beaver Meadows entrance. The National Park Service began construction of the area in the 1920s and completed it in the 1930s with the help of Public Works Administration (PWA) funding and Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) labor.  The New Deal agencies built four residences,  renovated six others and left behind some CCC camp buildings. The overall style of the buildings is national park rustic,...
  • Starr Ridge Warming Cabin - Malheur National Forest OR
    Civilian Conservation Corps workers from Camp Canyon Creek constructed a warming cabin to the south of Starr Ridge and just to the east of Highway 395 sometime between 1937 and 1940. The log structure with its impressive fireplace and chimney sits adjacent to a groomed sledding hill.
  • Storm Mountain Amphitheater - Big Cottonwood Canyon UT
    A marvelous amphitheater graces the Storm Mountain picnic area.  It was created in 1937 by the Civilian Conservation Corp (CCC). The amphitheater is built from local stone and backs up against a striking stone cliff, part of the dramatic geology of lower Big Cottonwood Canyon. A path and bridge lead to the amphitheater. The site was renovated by the US Forest Service and Chevron Corp workers in the early 1990s and is still actively used. It is marked by a plaque added at that time and an informational sign, which speaks proudly of the CCC "Forest Army" of the New Deal era...
  • Summit Creek Guard Station - LaGrande OR
    Located in the Umatilla Forest of northeastern Oregon, the Summit Creek Guard Station provides an early example of the US Forest Service's development of such forest management complexes. Overtime, guard stations replaced lookout towers. Civilian Conservation Corps enrollees began construction of the complex in 1933. Other sources attribute development of the complex to work completed in 1938. The Depression-era bunkhouse and warehouse still stand. The bunkhouse is available for rental use.    
  • Sumner Dam - Fort Sumner NM
    "Carlsbad Project, New Mexico - The Alamorgordo Dam is being constructed on the Pecos River to supply additional storage for the Carlsbad Project. It is an earth and rock fill type of dam with a maximum height of 135 feet and a volume of 1,700,000 cubic yards. The storage capacity of the reservoir will be 115,000 acre feet. Construction of the dam was started in May 1936 and the river was diverted through the completed outlet outlet tunnel in November. The dam is to be completed by January 1938. Wilfred W. Baker is engineer." "Sumner Dam and Lake lie 250 miles...
  • The Spruces Campground - Big Cottonwood Canyon UT
    The Utah Outdoor Association, working with the local Forest Service office in the Wasatch National Forest, created the Community Camp in 1921.  It was built on the site of a former tree nursery put there c. 1900 to reforest Big Cottonwood Canyon, which had been completely denuded of trees in the 19th century to build early Salt Lake City.  In 1935, the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) added many new facilities to the Community Camp, including more campsites, tent platforms, baseball fields, horseshoe pitches and a volleyball court. A ski jump and toboggan slide were added in 1936-37 at the mouth of Day's Fork,...
  • Theodore Roosevelt Island National Memorial - Washington DC
    Theodore Roosevelt Island National Memorial was created in the 1930s with the aid of the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) and National Park Service (NPS). Theodore Roosevelt Island sits in the middle of the Potomac between Arlington and downtown Washington, just within the District of Columbia. The island covers some 88 acres and is both a forest park and a memorial to President Theodore Roosevelt. In 1931, Mason's Island was bought by the Roosevelt Memorial Association, which presented it to the federal government in 1932 to be developed as a memorial to the former president and ardent conservationist, Teddy Roosevelt. Congress authorized the...
  • Thomas Jefferson Memorial - Washington DC
    The Jefferson Memorial was built to honor the author of the Declaration of Independence and third President of the United States, Thomas Jefferson. Such a memorial had long been proposed, but it was only realized under the New Deal, 1939-1943.  It remains one of America's most beloved monuments to this day.   The design is based on the Roman Pantheon and Jefferson's own love of classical architecture, as shown in his design of the Rotunda at the University of Virginia. It is built of white Danby marble from Vermont and is elevated on a circular platform of granite and marble, with steps...
  • Timber Creek Campground and Comfort Stations - Rocky Mountain National Park CO
    The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) built the Timber Creek Campground in Rocky Mountain National Park (Brock, p 40).  Timber Creek was the first campground on the west side of the park, in the valley of the upper Colorado River. Brock says the campground was done in 1941, but that doesn't jibe with information on the comfort stations, which were built in 1939, according to the national register; presumably the campground and comfort stations were done at the same time. The three comfort stations, or restrooms, constructed by CCC enrollees were designed in 1935 in classic Rustic Style by National Park Service landscape architect...
  • Timpanogos Cave National Monument: Stone Bridge and River Walls - Mount Timpanogos UT
    The Works Progress Administration (WPA) joined the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) in making improvements to Timpanogos Cave National Monument in the 1930s. They worked under the supervision of the National Park Service (NPS). A notable contribution of the WPA was to build a lovely stone arch bridge over the American Fork river in 1935.  The bridge gives access to the Superintendent's Residence, built by the WPA in 1941.  The WPA relief workers also faced both sides of the river with 6-10 foot high stone walls for a distance of about 100 feet on each side of the bridge. The stonework is...
  • Tioga Pass Comfort Station - Yosemite National Park CA
    This Tioga Pass comfort station was built by the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) in 1934.  It sits near the Entrance/Ranger Station at the east entrance to Yosemite National Park, which was built earlier.   The building is done in classic National Park rustic style, with walls constructed of large boulders. Comfort stations was the name used at the time for restrooms with additional washing facilities, which this one does not have; hence, it is literally just a 'restroom'. The Tioga Pass road, which was largely built by the CCC, is closed from the first major snowstorm in November until early summer because...
  • Tioga Road - Yosemite National Park CA
    New Deal agencies realigned and reconstructed 47 miles of the Tioga road from Crane Flat to Tioga Pass over the years 1933 to 1943.  They were not able, however, to complete the road down from Tioga Pass to Lee Vining (Mono Lake), which remained in deplorable condition until it was remade in 1961.  Funding for the Tioga Road project came from the Public Works Administration (PWA); the Bureau of Public Roads (BPR) managed construction, using private companies; and the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) did auxiliary work landscaping roadsides. The National Park Service (NPS) oversaw all work in the park.  The short-lived...
  • Town of Norris - Norris TN
    "During the 1930s and 1940s the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) built, owned, and administered the community of Norris for fifteen years... New urban theorists are hard at work designing the town of the future. But Norris, Tennessee, built by TVA nearly 70 years ago, beat them all to the punch... The immediate purpose of the town was to house the workers building Norris Dam four miles away on the Clinch River. The second purpose, which may have been even more important to Morgan, was to show America that cooperative living works. The houses would be built on a modest and tasteful scale,...
  • Trail Improvement and Restoration - Yosemite National Park CA
    The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) made many improvements around Yosemite National Park during its time there, 1933-42.  Enrollees worked out of two major hub camps and a dozen or so seasonal and 'spike' (temporary) camps. One of the typical activities of the CCC in national and state parks was building and upgrading trails.  Because Yosemite is the second oldest national park, the trail system was already well developed before the CCC arrived.  Nevertheless, CCC teams did extensive maintenance and improvement work on the far-flung trail system of the park.   In particular, after the damage done by the floods of winter 1937,...
  • Trail Ridge Store - Rocky Mountain National Park CO
    In 1935, enrollees in the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) constructed a "museum, curios shop and coffee house" at Fall River Pass. Other CCC 'boys' came back in 1939 and added an extension to the building for toilets and a water supply  (Brock, p. 43). Today, the building functions as the Trail Ridge Store and Cafe, and a large, new visitor center has been constructed next to it. The Trail Ridge Store is built of stone and timber, with a shingle roof, in the classic National Park Service Rustic Style.  CCC enrollees were very helpful to the National Park Service as museum guides, as well.
  • Trails - Umpqua National Forest OR
    The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) built many trails in the Umpqua National Forest, working under the US Forest Service out of several CCC camps (e.g., Steamboat, Illahee). Mention is made of these trails in some information panels around the national forest, but the only one definitely identified is a portion of the North Umpqua River trail between Steamboat and Panther Creek. We will add more information on these trails as it is uncovered.
  • Trask River County Campground - Tillamook OR
    Once the site of CCC Camp Trask, the Trask River County Campground provides day and camping facilities on the northern bank of the Trask River. Tillamook County currently manages this recreational land, located approximately fifteen miles east of the City of Tillamook. The campground was cleared for use as a Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Camp in 1937. CCC enrollees residing at the site also improved the campground by laying out picnic facilities and recreation trails. Additional CCC enrollees' improvements included tree planting, and road and bridge development in the area.
  • Tumacácori National Historical Park: External Walls & Facilities - Tumacácori AZ
    The Tumacácori National Monument was set aside by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1908 to protect the ruins of the Mission of San Jose de Tumacacori.  In 1918, it came under the administration of the National Park Service and its regional 'custodian', Frank Pinkley.  Congress created the Tumacácori National Historic Park in 1990, adding the ruins of two nearby missions, Los Santos Angeles de Guevavi and San Cayetano de Calabazas. Under the park service's guidance, Tumacácori mission church and its dependencies were stabilized in 1920-21, but intentionally not fully restored.  Only with the aid of the New Deal did the park come...
  • Tuolumne Meadows Campground - Yosemite National Park CA
    The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) constructed the Tuolumne Meadows campground in 1933-34, according to a plan laid out by the National Park Service (NPS) and with financing from the Public Works Administration (PWA).  It is the largest campground in Yosemite National Park.  The campground regularized camping at Tuolumne, which had previously been a free-for-all with cars driving across the meadows and people camping wherever they liked. The damage to the meadows had been extensive before the National Park Service brought a halt to the anarchy. First, the NPS restricted camping to designated campgrounds and then implemented a new plan for individual campsites,...
  • Tuolumne Meadows Campground Comfort Stations - Yosemite National Park CA
    The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) constructed the Tuolumne Meadows campground in 1933-34.  It is the largest campground in Yosemite National Park. The CCC enrollees also built three comfort stations for the campground, done in classic National Park rustic style of boulders and timbers.  At the time, a comfort station was more than a restroom, because it included washing facilities. The three comfort stations still operate and have been placed on the National Register of Historic Places.    
  • Tuolumne Meadows Campground Contact Station - Yosemite National Park CA
    The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) constructed the Tuolumne Meadows campground in 1933-34 and added a "contact station" or entrance station in 1936. The building is done is classic National Park rustic style, with massive boulder walls. An entrance kiosk has been added to the campground in recent years.  
  • Tuolumne Meadows Sewage System - Yosemite National Park CA
    In the late 1930s, the Public Works Administration (PWA) funded a new sewage collection and treatment system for Tuolumne Meadows.  It replaced the original septic tanks for the campground comfort stations and was extended to take in a broader area around the campground. More information is needed on the amount and timing of the PWA funding. The old spray field system for distributing treated sewage has been recently replaced with settling ponds. It is unknown how much of the original piping survives.
  • Tuolumne Meadows Visitor Center (former) - Yosemite National Park CA
    The Tuolumne Meadows Visitors Center was originally built by the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) as a road crew camp mess hall in 1934.  Around 1980,  the National Park Service converted the building to a Visitors Center, replacing an older one in the original "contact station" at Tuolumne Meadows campground. This building is a good example of National Park Service rustic park architecture of the 1930's. It was constructed with native materials to blend with the environment, and reflects hand crafted techniques. It is on the National Register of Historic Places. As of 2022, a new Visitors Center is under construction nearby and...
  • Tuolumne River Bridge - Yosemite National Park CA
    New Deal agencies realigned and reconstructed the Old Tioga road from 1933 to 1943, from Crane Flat to Tuolumne Meadows.  An important element of the road project was the bridge over the Tuolumne River, just east of the Tuolumne Meadows campground. The bridge was constructed in 1933-34. Funding came from the Public Works Administration (PWA); the Bureau of Public Roads (BPR) managed construction, using private companies; and the National Park Service (NPS) oversaw all work in the park. The Tuolumne River bridge is a modern design of steel beams and concrete, but is dressed up with stone siding to accord with the...
  • Union Creek Historic District - Union Creek OR
    The Union Creek Historic District on the upper Rogue River in Union Creek, Oregon, is listed on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places because it is a fine representative of a type of rustic resort popular in the early 20th century and has been little altered since the 1930s. The United States Forest Service (USFS)  began planning the recreational development of Union Creek in the 1920s, as outdoor recreation by automobile expanded rapidly. Subsequent development of the area followed forest service plans and the USFS has maintained the integrity of the district for the last century. There are almost one hundred...
  • Upper Rogue River CCC Camp - Union Creek OR
    The Union Creek Historic District on the upper Rogue River in Union Creek, Oregon, is listed on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places because it is a fine representative of a type of rustic resort popular in the early 20th century and has been little altered since the 1930s.   There are almost one hundred buildings and other facilities in the Union Creek Historic District, almost all of which conform to the Forest Service plans of the 1920s and 30s.  Roughly a third were constructed by the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) from 1933 to 1942.   CCC enrollees worked during summer...
  • Upper Rogue River Trail Section - Union Creek OR
    The Union Creek Historic District on the upper Rogue River in Union Creek, Oregon, is listed on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places because it is a fine representative of a type of rustic resort popular in the early 20th century and has been little altered since the 1930s.  There are almost one hundred buildings and other facilities in the Union Creek Historic District, almost all of which conform to the Forest Service plans of the 1920s and 30s.  Roughly a third were constructed by the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) from 1933 to 1942, working out of the Upper...
  • Utility Area - Rocky Mountain National Park CO
    The utility area is the principle maintenance station of Rocky Mountain National Park. It is located near the Beaver Meadows entrance at Estes Park CO. It is a large complex of functional buildings, including offices, shops, garages, and storage, centered around a maintenance yard and machine shop (plus a substantial residential area for park employees).  The National Park Service began construction of the area in the 1920s and completed it in the 1930s with the help of Public Works Administration (PWA) funding and Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) labor.   The CCC was present in the park from 1933 to 1942 and...
  • Valentine National Wildlife Refuge - Valentine NE
    Valentine Migratory Waterfowl Refuge was established in 1935 by an Executive Order of President Franklin Roosevelt.  Some 70,000 acres of land in the Sand Hills of Cherry County, Nebraska were purchased by the Bureau of Biological Survey “as a breeding ground for migratory birds and other wildlife.”  The Nebraska Game Preserve and Fish Commission worked cooperatively with the Bureau of Biological Survey to bring the project to fruition. (The bureau morphed into the US Fish & Wildlife Service in 1940).  Valentine NWF is part of the Fort Niobrara/Valentine NWR complex, administered from Fort Niobrara NWR, along with the John and Louise...
  • Wahkeena Falls Trail - Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area OR
    Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) enrollees were brought in as early as 1933 to improve the hiking trail network in the Gorge along with their other forest management and recreation development. The Wahkeena Falls Trail was among the first to be improved, following Wahkeena Creek toward its source on the Columbia gorge rim. Another new trail, along the rim, linked Wahkeena and Multnomah Falls to allow hikers to go from one falls to the other without using the highway. In the 1920s, as part of a larger project giving Columbia River Gorge waterfalls their current names, the Mazamas (a local climbing and...
  • Wawona Elementary School - Yosemite National Park CA
    The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) built a school house at Wawona in 1937. The enrollee work teams came from the nearby Wawona CCC Camp YNP #7. The building is a shingled, rustic wood structure set on a stone foundation, with large windows for good interior lighting. Its appearance is unchanged over the years. A new, large school has replaced the New Deal building sometime around 1970, built in a modern style at odds with the old idea of park rusticity.  The old CCC school was used for many years as a community center, until that, too, was replaced by a new, larger,...
  • Wawona Ranger Station Residences - Yosemite National Park CA
    The New Deal made possible the construction of a ranger station in the Wawona area, which was added to Yosemite National Park in 1932.  The ranger station complex includes two ranger residences and accompanying garages.  These buildings still exist, but are now used for different purposes. According to the Superintendent's Monthly Report of December 1934, the Public Works Administration (PWA) provided the funding to the National Park Service (NPS) for the ranger station complex (Broesamle 2022). This contradicts the 2012 NPS report on design in the park, which attributes the buildings to the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) (see quote below).  The latter...
  • Wawona Road Completion - Yosemite National Park CA
    New Deal agencies played a major role in the transformation of the narrow and dangerous Wawona wagon trail into a safe and comfortable route into Yosemite Valley. The route from the South Entrance to the Valley floor is 27 miles.  It is one of three access roads to Yosemite Valley, along with the El Portal road and Big Oak Flat Road. The National Park Service and the Bureau of Public Roads (BPR) signed a Memorandum of Agreement in July 1925, authorizing the planning and construction of new roads within Yosemite National Park. Surveying was begun in 1928 and initial construction was...
  • Wheeler Dam - Rogersville AL
    "Wheeler Dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Tennessee River between Lauderdale County and Lawrence County in the U.S. state of Alabama. It is one of nine dams on the river owned and operated by the Tennessee Valley Authority, which built the dam in the mid-1930s as part of a New Deal-era initiative to improve navigation on the river and bring flood control and economic development to the region. The dam impounds the Wheeler Lake of 67,070 acres (27,140 ha) and its tailwaters feed into Wilson Lake... Construction work on Wheeler Dam began on November 21, 1933, the second major dam construction...
  • Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge - Decatur AL
    The Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge (WNWR) covers 35,000 acres  along the Tennessee River near Decatur, Alabama.  The Wheeler Migratory Bird Refuge was established by Executive Order of President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1938 to provide habitat for wintering and migrating birds in the eastern  United States (the name was changed to the present NWR in 1940). The refuge was made possible by the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) construction of Wheeler dam (1933-1936) and the creation of Wheeler Lake.  It became the first National Wildlife Refuge associated with a multi-purpose reservoir, which provides for navigation over the Muscle Shoals area, flood control, electricity production, and...
  • White Narrows Site, Dam No. 1 and 2 - Moapa Indian Reservation NV
    The main purpose of these dams (and others) on the Muddy River is flood control and protection of downstream decreed agricultural land owned by the Moapa Indian Reservation and/or private water users in Moapa Valley. The White Narrows Dam No. 1 also impounds water during wetter years and/or off-season useage. Dam No. 2 is located within the Reservation while Dam No. 1 and its reservoir are at the edge but mostly outside of the Reservation boundary. Dam No. 2 was built by the Civilian Conservation Corps - Indian Division (CCC-ID) in 1935 under supervision of the Office Indian Affairs and...
  • Wichita Mountains National Wildlife Refuge - Indiahoma OK
    Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge began in 1901 when part of the Comanche-Kiowa-Apache Indian Reservation was set aside as a National Forest. The area was transferred in 1935 to the Bureau of Biological Survey to become a wildlife refuge under the New Deal.   The 59,020 acre refuge hosts a rare piece of the past - a remnant mixed grass prairie, an island where the natural grasslands escaped destruction because the rocks underfoot defeated the plow.  It  provides habitat for large native grazing animals such as American bison and Rocky Mountain elk – both of which had been exterminated in this area...
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